The success of Linux also shows that bizarre hybrid governance models can be successful if everyone is motivated and aligned. IBM, Intel, Hitachi, Fujitsu, Oracle, NEC and others collectively pumps hundreds of millions of dollars into developing Linux. Linus Torvalds sits at the center, not all powerful, but a major factor. Powerful players used to getting their own way must get along. The culture of development is still very community-based. IBM cannot just force developers on the project and have them accepted as committers. Red Hat and other participants provide the equivalent of product management, collecting requirements and feeding them into the process. If you designed this model and proposed that one of the most important layers of software on the planet would be created and managed this way, nobody would believe it would work. But it does.
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